Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery - medECUBE
Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery

Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery

The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists. Whereas, a heart surgeon or cardiac surgeon performs surgical operations to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease created by various causes including endocarditis.

Our partner hospitals in India have excellent medical and surgical facilities, top-notch specialists, and they offer world-class cardiac care.

  1. Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Surgical closures of Atrial Septal Defects, Ventricular Septal Defects.
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus Surgery
  • Tetralogy of Fallot Surgery
  • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Repair
  • Single Ventricle Defects Surgery
  • Coronary by Pass Grafting Surgery– CABG / Heart bypass Surgery
  • Off Pump beating CABG
  • LV restoration surgery
  • Valve Repair/Replacement
  • Atrial Fibrillation Surgery
  • Ross Procedure
  • Cardiac Tumor Resection
  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair Surgery
  • Aortic Dissection Repair Surgery
  • Minimal access surgeries for valves
  • Aortofemoral Bypass Surgery
  • Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy …

2.  Non-Surgical Heart Treatments

  • Coronary Stenting – PTCA procedure
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation-TAVI
  • Pacemaker Insertion.
  • Automatic Implantable cardiac Defibrillators(AICDS)
  • Holter Monitoring
  • 24 Blood pressure Monitoring
  • Radio Frequency Ablation
  • Electrophysiology Study
  • Many More….


What are the symptoms of Heart Attack?

The most common symptoms are-
Chest Pain – Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest, lasting for more than a few minutes
Shortness of Breath – This may be your only symptom or it may occur before or along with chest pain or discomfort.
Shoulder/ arm Pain – Pain spreading to the shoulders, neck or arms. The pain may be mild to intense. It may feel like pressure, tightness, burning, or a heavy weight

Palpitations – perceived abnormal heartbeats. These are characterized by awareness of rapid cardiac muscle contractions in the chest .
Other symptoms- Anxiety, nervousness and loss of consciousness are other common symptoms of a serious heart condition.

What first- aid can be provided to the patient in case of a Heart Attack?

General measures to be adopted are-
A tablet of Aspirin chewed at the time of heart attack can reduce the mortality by 15 to 20 per cent.
Make the person sit down, loose any tight clothing
Immediately shift him/her to the nearest hospital with the Cath-lab facility
Monitor the patient’s breathing and pulse until the ambulance arrives or the patient reaches the hospital.

What is silent Heart Attack and what are the symptoms?

A heart attack does not always have obvious symptoms, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, cold sweating. In fact, a heart attack can actually happen without a person knowing it. It is called a silent heart attack, or medically referred to as a silent Ischemia to the heart muscle.

People suffering from silent heart attack are more likely to have non-specific and subtle symptoms, such as indigestion, or they may feel strained muscle in their chest or their upper back or may appear with ordinary signs such as fatigue or extreme tiredness, dizziness, nausea or sweating.

What are the treatment techniques of blocked arteries?

There are two methods of treating the blocked arteries –

Medicines – Thrombolytic medicines, also called ‘clot busters,’ are used to dissolve blood clots that are blocking the coronary arteries. Ideally, the medicine should be given as soon as possible. However, it is successful in only two thirds of the patient.

Angioplasty – Angioplasty is a procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to your heart. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. Angioplasty uses a thin, flexible tube with a ‘balloon’ to widen blocked arteries. Once in place, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the wall of the artery. This restores blood flow through the artery. A metal stent is often placed across the artery wall to keep the artery from narrowing again. The drug eluting stents are better than bare metal stents in having lesser incidences of re-stenosis.

What precautions are recommended for the patients after a Heart Attack?


After a heart attack, you will need to see your doctor regularly for check-ups to see how your heart is doing. Most people who don’t have chest pain or discomfort or other problems can safely return to their normal activities within a few weeks.  Depending upon your condition, the doctor may recommend-

Lifestyle changes such quitting smoking, changing diet, or increasing your physical activity
Medications to lower your cholesterol or blood pressure, help reduce the heart’s workload
Participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program

How can I help avoid a heart attack?

  • Don’t smoke and avoid passive smoke
  • Treat high blood pressure
  • Eat food that is low in saturated fats, trans-fat, cholesterol and salt
  • Be physically active and exercise regularly
  • Keep your weight under control
  • Get regular medical check-ups done
  • Take medicine as prescribed
  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes


Angiography – $ 500-700

Angioplasty – $ 5800-9200

CABG – $ 5500 – 8000

AVR/MVR – $ 9000-12500

ASD – $ 6000-8000

VSD – $ 6000-8000

Bentall – $ 13000-18000

LVAD – $ 130000 – 140000

Pacemaker – $8000-14000


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